|Other Names||Transcriptional regulator ATRX, ATP-dependent helicase ATRX, X-linked helicase II, X-linked nuclear protein, XNP, Znf-HX, ATRX, RAD54L, XH2|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP2541b was selected from the N-term region of human ATRX. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||Peptides are lyophilized in a solid powder format. Peptides can be reconstituted in solution using the appropriate buffer as needed.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Facilitates DNA replication in multiple cellular environments and is required for efficient replication of a subset of genomic loci. Binds to DNA tandem repeat sequences in both telomeres and euchromatin and in vitro binds DNA quadruplex structures. May help stabilizing G-rich regions into regular chromatin structures by remodeling G4 DNA and incorporating H3.3-containing nucleosomes. Catalytic component of the chromatin remodeling complex ATRX:DAXX which has ATP-dependent DNA translocase activity and catalyzes the replication-independent deposition of histone H3.3 in pericentric DNA repeats outside S-phase and telomeres, and the in vitro remodeling of H3.3-containing nucleosomes. Its heterochromatin targeting is proposed to involve a combinatorial readout of histone H3 modifications (specifically methylation states of H3K9 and H3K4) and association with CBX5. Involved in maintaining telomere structural integrity in embryonic stem cells which probably implies recruitment of CBX5 to telomeres. Reports on the involvement in transcriptional regulation of telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) are conflicting; according to a report, it is not sufficient to decrease chromatin condensation at telomeres nor to increase expression of telomeric RNA in fibroblasts (PubMed:24500201). May be involved in telomere maintenance via recombination in ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) cell lines. Acts as negative regulator of chromatin incorporation of transcriptionally repressive histone MACROH2A1, particularily at telomeres and the alpha-globin cluster in erythroleukemic cells. Participates in the allele-specific gene expression at the imprinted IGF2/H19 gene locus. On the maternal allele, required for the chromatin occupancy of SMC1 and CTCTF within the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) and involved in esatblishment of histone tails modifications in the ICR. May be involved in brain development and facial morphogenesis. Binds to zinc-finger coding genes with atypical chromatin signatures and regulates its H3K9me3 levels. Forms a complex with ZNF274, TRIM28 and SETDB1 to facilitate the deposition and maintenance of H3K9me3 at the 3' exons of zinc-finger genes (PubMed:27029610).|
|Cellular Location||Nucleus. Chromosome, telomere. Nucleus, PML body. Note=Associated with pericentromeric heterochromatin during interphase and mitosis, probably by interacting with CBX5/HP1 alpha. Colocalizes with histone H3.3, DAXX, HIRA and ASF1A at PML-nuclear bodies Colocalizes with cohesin (SMC1 and SMC3) and MECP2 at the maternal H19 ICR (By similarity).|
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ATRX contains an ATPase/helicase domain, and thus it belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. The mutations of this gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassemia (ATRX) syndrome. Theses mutations have been shown to cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation, which may provide a link between chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and gene expression in developmental processes. This protein is found to undergo cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis.
Mazina, O.M., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279(50):52042-52051 (2004).Tang, P., et al., Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 15(7):339-344 (2004).Beausoleil, S.A., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(33):12130-12135 (2004).Steensma, D.P., et al., Blood 103(6):2019-2026 (2004).Tang, J., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279(19):20369-20377 (2004).
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